RELATED ARTICLES
   About
   Survey
   Penis Anatomy & Physiology
   Penis Vessels
   Weak Erection
   Bent or Curved Penis
   Lopsided Erection
   Peyronie's Disease
   Healthy Penis
   Erectile Dysfunction
   Erection
   Reproductive System
   Premature Ejaculation
   Infertility
   Small Penis
   The Ideal Penis Size
   Do You Want A Big Penis
   Instructions
   Our Successful
   Penis Enlargement Therapies
 
 
Disorders of the penis


The penis is one of the external structures of the male reproductive system. The penis has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans penis, which is the cone-shaped end (head). The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the glans penis.

The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three internal chambers. These chambers are made up of special, sponge-like erectile tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large caverns that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sexual intercourse. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate changes in penis size during an erection.

Semen, which contains sperm (the male reproductive cells), is expelled through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). Disorders of the penis can affect a man’s sexual functioning and fertility.

What disorders affect the penis?

Some disorders that affect the penis include the following:

Priapism

  

Priapism is a persistent, often painful erection that can last from several hours to a few days. The priapism erection is not associated with sexual activity and is not relieved by orgasm. It occurs when blood flows into the penis but is not adequately drained. Common causes of priapism include:

o        Alcohol or drug abuse (especially cocaine)

o        Certain medications, including some antidepressants and blood pressure medications

o        Spinal cord problems

o        Injury to the genitals

o        Anesthesia

o        Penile injection therapy (a treatment for erectile dysfunction)

o        Blood diseases, including leukemia and sickle cell anemia

Peyronie’s disease

 

Peyronie's disease is a condition in which a plaque, or hard lump, forms on the penis. The plaque may develop on the upper (more common) or lower side of the penis, in the layers that contain erectile tissue. The plaque often begins as a localized area of irritation and swelling (inflammation), and can develop into a hardened scar. The scarring reduces the elasticity of the penis in the area affected.

Peyronie's disease often occurs in a mild form that heals without treatment in six to 15 months. In these cases, the problem does not progress past the inflammation phase. In severe cases, the disease can last for years. The hardened plaque reduces flexibility, causing pain and forcing the penis to bend or arc during erection.

In addition to the bending of the penis, Peyronie’s disease can cause general pain as well as painful erections. It also can cause emotional distress, and affect a man’s desire and ability to function during sex.

The exact cause of Peyronie's disease is unknown. Cases that develop quickly, last a short time and go away without treatment most often are due to a trauma (hitting or bending) that causes bleeding inside the penis. Some cases of Peyronie’s disease, however, develop slowly and are severe enough to require surgical treatment. Other possible causes of Peyronie’s disease include:

  • Vasculitis This is an inflammation of blood or lymphatic vessels. This inflammation can lead to the formation of scar tissue.

  • Connective tissue disorders — According to the National Institutes of Health, about 30 percent of men with Peyronie’s disease also develop disorders that affect the connective tissue in other parts of their bodies. These disorders generally cause a thickening or hardening of the connective tissue. Connective tissue is specialized tissue—such as cartilage, bone and skin—that acts to support other body tissues.

  • Heredity — some studies suggest that a man who has a relative with Peyronie’s disease is at greater risk for developing the disease himself.

Balanitis

 ClickHere 

Balanitis is an inflammation of the skin covering the head of the penis. A similar condition, balanoposthitis, refers to inflammation of the head and the foreskin. Symptoms of balanitis include redness or swelling, itching, rash, pain and a foul-smelling discharge.

Balanitis most often occurs in men and boys who have not been circumcised (had their foreskin surgically removed), and who have poor hygiene. Inflammation can occur if the sensitive skin under the foreskin is not washed regularly, allowing sweat, debris, dead skin and bacteria to collect under the foreskin and cause irritation. The presence of tight foreskin may make it difficult to keep this area clean and can lead to irritation by a foul-smelling substance (smegma) that can accumulate under the foreskin.

Other causes may include:

o       Dermatitis/allergy — Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin, often caused by an irritating substance or a contact allergy. Sensitivity to chemicals in certain products—such as soaps, detergents, perfumes and spermicides—can cause an allergic reaction, including irritation, itching and a rash.

o        Infection — Infection with the yeast candida albicans (thrush) can result in an itchy, spotty rash. Certain sexually transmitted diseases—including gonorrhea, herpes and syphilis—can produce symptoms of balanitis.

 In addition, men with diabetes are at greater risk for balanitis. Glucose (sugar) in the urine that is trapped under the foreskin serves as a breeding ground for bacteria.

Persistent inflammation of the penis head and foreskin can result in scarring, which can cause a tightening of the foreskin (phimosis) and a narrowing of the urethra (tube that drains urine from the bladder). Inflammation also can lead to swelling of the foreskin, which can cause injury to the penis.

Phimosis and paraphimosis

ClickHere

Phimosis is a condition in which the foreskin of the penis is so tight that it cannot be pulled back (retracted) to reveal the head of the penis. Paraphimosis occurs when the foreskin, once retracted, cannot return to its original location.

Phimosis, which is seen most often in children, may be present at birth. It also can be caused by an infection, or by scar tissue that formed as a result of injury or chronic inflammation. Another cause of phimosis is balanitis, which leads to scarring and tightness of the foreskin. Immediate medical attention is necessary if the condition makes urination difficult or impossible.

 ClickHere

Paraphimosis is a medical emergency that can cause serious complications if not treated. Paraphimosis may occur after an erection or sexual activity, or as the result of injury to the head of the penis. With paraphimosis, the foreskin becomes stuck behind the ridge of the head of the penis. If this condition is prolonged, it can cause pain and swelling, and impair blood flow to the penis. In extreme cases, the lack of blood flow can result in the death of tissue (gangrene), and amputation of the penis may be necessary.

Penile cancer
A rare form of cancer, penile cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the penis divide and grow uncontrolled. Certain benign (non-cancerous) tumors may progress and become cancer.

The exact cause of penile cancer is not known, but there are certain risk factors for the disease. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of getting a disease. The risk factors for cancer of the penis may include the following:

  • Circumcision—Men who are not circumcised at birth have a higher risk for getting cancer of the penis.
     

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infectionHPVs are a group of more than 70 types of viruses that can cause warts (papillomas). Certain types of HPVs can infect the reproductive organs and the anal area. These types of HPVs are passed from one person to another during sexual contact.
     

  • Smoking—Smoking exposes the body to many cancer-causing chemicals that affect more than the lungs.

o       Smegma—Oily secretions from the skin can accumulate under the foreskin of the penis. The result is a thick, bad-smelling substance called smegma. If the penis is not cleaned thoroughly, the presence of smegma can cause irritation and inflammation.

o       PhimosisThis is a condition in which the foreskin becomes constricted and difficult to retract.

o     Treatment for psoriasisThe skin disease psoriasis is sometimes treated with a combination of medication and exposure to ultraviolet light.

AgeMost cases of penile cancer occur in men over age 50.